Cuneiform Inscription on the Brick from King Shalmanassar1stPeriod

  • Qusay Mansoor Ai-Turkey, Dr. Department of sociality, Faculty of Science & Basic Education- Akre, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region- Iraq


The text that we are going to study is considered one of the well-known writings which is usually known as " bricks inauguration " in buildings, palaces and temples   and they are in the form of stamp or inscription. This type of cuneiform is codified as memorial models to indicate to the kind of construction and discrimination in terms of inauguration or re- construction and the impact that we are going to study a brick stone its total dimensions 27.2 cm. long , 22.3 cm. wide and 5.5 cm. thickness , written on it the cuneiform text belong to the period of the king, "Shalmaneser I " (1274 - 1245 BC. ) . the text consists of six lines of writing in Akkadian- Assyrian  languages.  a person found it on an unknown ancient hill which is now represent a cemetery which people of the region buried their  dead for decades .it located within the boundaries of a village known as " Bastam " about 20 km to the north of the  famous ancient city of Nimrud , on the east bank of the River " Upper Zab" within the boundaries of the city, "Kalak" in Erbil governorate .

The importance of the text shown on the brick that it revealed to us the location of the important  archaeological City  for the researchers and those who  specialize in archaeology . that is the city of "Kilizi " which was one of the Assyrian cities  connected with other Assyrian cities in the northern Mesopotamia and the to discover what they had included  contributes to increase information on the Assyrian state during its middle period. So my call is an urgent need to preview this archaeological hill and stand on the discovering archaeological remains and their buildings' foundations.


1- A formal command by Erbil archaeological and according to the researcher nomination by the archaeology department in Sallahddeen University in its decision number 4/2/3096 dated on 9/21/2009, the researcher has copied, read and translated the text.
2- Walker C B F , Cuneiform Brick Inscription, the British museum, the Ashmolean museum, Oxford the city of Birmingham museums and art gallery, the city of Bristol museum and art gallery, British museum publications limited, London, 1981, p.9
3- Hallo W.W , Royal Inscription of the Early Old Babylonian, BIOR, vol.18, 1961,p.4ff.
4- ZawyJumy:located near Shana Da Ra cave on the Upper Alzab river in Kurdistan Iraq, its area is 215×275 M, rough rests of walls have been found made of rivers' stones and pebbles, they refer to rounded huts its diameter is 4 M, and two built houses and fireplaces and house decorations, see Sabah AboodAljasim, the transformation from the stage gathering food into producing food, MA degree unpublished, Baghdad University-College of Arts, (1975:61).
5- Adal Abdu Allah Aldulymee, The beginning of agriculture and the first cultivating village in Iraq, MA degree unpublished, Baghdad University-College of Arts, (1985:111).
6- Hussein DaherHamud, ''The carved walls as Assyrian mass media'' AdabAlrafidian magazine, No. 31, Baghdad, (1998:291).
7- YosefShareef, The History of Ancient Iranian Architecture in Different Period, Baghdad,(1983:172)
8- Hameed Mohammad Hussein .. The influence of the building Iraqi house over eras, Baynal-Nahreen magazine, No. 49-50, Baghdad (1985:72)
9- Labat R Manuel D ÉpigraphieAkkadienne(= MAD) ,2002, Paris,no.229,p.125.
10- Doblovour E, signs and miracles studies in methods and curriculums used in reading and writing and ancient languages, translated and presented by Amar Hatim, (Libya-Tunis,1983:224).
11- Hattusha: The capital of Hittites empire, which was uncovered under the ruins of Bogazkoy in the meddle and north of Anatolia, the city was discovered in the middle of nineteenth century, at the end of the same century, first Sumerian figures were discovered of Hittites language. Digging was started at the beginning of the twentieth century by the Eastward German Association, the job continued in interrupted periods on the extension of the referred century. See: Anton Mortkrat, the history of Far East, translated by TawfeeqSulyman- Ali Abu Assaf, Damascus 1967.
12- Ahmed ZydanKhalf Salah Alhadydy, the Assyrian relations with the modern Hittites kingdoms in north of Syria (911-612 BC), un published PhD Thesis, University of Mosul, College of Arts, History Dept. (2005:86)
13- Jorny A.R. Hittites, (London,1952), translated by Mohammad Abdula Kader, revised by Faysal Al-Waaly (1963:175-177).
14- Ryad Ibrahim Mohammad Ahmed Al-Jibory, unpublished texts cuneiforms from the modern Assyrian reign- Assyrian city, unpublished MA thesis, University of Mosul, College of Arts, (2004:16-17). To know the readings mentioned on the tense of Ashur, you can see the following sources:Nashef,K, Die Orts – und Gewässernamen der altassyrischenzeit, Germany (1991),p.14-20.(RGTS,4) ; Nashef Die orts – und Gewässernamen der mittelbabylonischen und mittelassyrischenzeit, Germany(1982) , (=RGTC,5) ; Groneberg ,B , Die orts- und Gewässernamen der altbabylonischenzeit , Germany (1980), p.41-45.(=RGTC,3); Edzar,D.O., and others Die orts- und Gewässernamen der präsargonischen und sargonischenzeit,Germany(1977) ,p.20 (=RGTC) ; Eedzard,D.O.farber,G., Die Orts-und Gewässernamen der zeit der 3. Dynastie von Ur, Germany (1974), p.19 (= RGTC,2).
15- Michalowski, P, Third Millennium Contacts: Observation on the Relationships between Mari and Ebla, JAOS, 1985, 105, part.2, p.297.
16- TalibMunaamhabeeb, the career and the achievements of Sanhareeb (705-681 BC) unpublished MA thesis, university of Baghdad, College of Arts, (1986:6).
17- AlhamawyYaqoot, MuajamAlbuldan -The Dictionary of Cities- Tehran Printing, (1965:119).
18- TahaBaqer, An Introduction Ancient Civilization History, part .1,Baghdad,(1973:4
19- Ibid.
20- WaleedMuhammedSalehFarhan, The Political Relationship of Assyria State, M.A, degree thesis, College of Art, University of Baghdad,(1967:51).
21- Grayson, A K, Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Part 2, Wiesbaden, 1972/76,p.60.
22- Munn - Rankin. J. M, Assyrian Military Power, 1300 - 1200 B.C, CAH, Vol, 11, Part.2, 1975, p.279.
23- FarooqNaser Al- Rawi, The Science and Knowledge, Iraqi Civilization Encyclopedia, part.2, Baghdad,(1985:274).
24- MDA,no.324,p.149;The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, Chicago, (= CAD),B, p.46:a.
25- MDA, Ibid , no.343,p.157.
26- Caplice R (1980) Introduction to Akkadian, Roma, p.20.
27- Ibid,p.77.
28- MDA , no.471, p.211..
29- Jeremy B and Others (1999) A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, Wiesbaden (=CDA) ,p.162.
30- I would like to thank DrFarooq Al Rawi, who helps me with this valuable note and his correction for the text by a personal message. To know more about King-list and the role of the city of Kish, see TahaBaqer, op.cit,p.287.
31- MDA, no.579, p.237.
32- CAD,p.187.
33- NaelHanoon, The Graveyards and Temples in Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization, part.1, The Graveyards and their Ceremonies, published.1st, Damascus,(2006:p.132-133).It's shown as follow:MAN. KUR. AŠ-ŠUR- ma", which means: the King of Assyrian.
34- CDA , p.343 a.
35- MDA, no.366,p.169.
36- MDA,no.151,p.103; CDA,p.361b.
37- MDA,no.38,p.57; CAD, p.13b.
38- VonsodenW,AkkadischesHandworterbuch, Wiesbaden, 1957-1981 (= AHw), p.24 a .
39- Parpola S and Watanabe K, Neo- Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths, vol. II , Helsinki,1988, p.30,6:35,A-E.
40- Parpola S, The correspondence of SargonII, part.1: Letters from Assyria and the West ,Helsinki,1987,p.130,170 r4 , p.126,160:r6.
41- NaelHanoon, Ancient Cities and Archeological Sites –A Study of Northern Iraqi Historical Geograph,Through the Assyrian Period, published.1st,Damascus,(2009:245).
42- Postgate ,RLA 5,519.
43- Saggs H W F,The Might that was Assyria , translated by Sulaiman A,Baghd