Mispronunciation Problems of Affricate Sounds by Iraqi EFL Learners: An Empirical Study in Face-to-Face learning and E-learning


  • Asst. Prof. Dr. Rafida Mansoor Al hilou College of Arts / Mustansiriyah University/ Baghdad




face to face learning, e- learning, affricate sounds


Iraqi EFL learners often mispronounce the two affricate sounds in English: the unvoiced affricate /tʃ/ and the voiced affricate /dʒ/ owing to a lack of exposure to English as a foreign language.

In this paper, the researcher investigates two problems, which are vital to discuss mispronunciation problems of affricates in Iraqi colleges of arts. The first problem is why Iraqi undergraduates mispronounce English affricates in face-to-face training and e-learning and the second problem is what phonological process occurs in the mispronunciation of these two sounds in both types of teachings.

The study relates phonetic and phonological approaches to the analysis of the formulation of such a mispronunciation. Firstly, the writer uses a questionnaire to find out the differences and the similarities among Iraqi EFL learners in two colleges of arts relating to affricates. Secondly, the writer measures what affricate sounds Iraqi EFL learners mispronounce when they produce the given words.

The results reveal that in face-to-face teaching there are three positions for committing mispronunciation of these two sounds: initial position, medial position and final position. In the pronunciation of the sound /tʃ/, the highest percentage for mispronunciation happens when it occurs finally. However, when/ tʃ/ sound occurs medially, the percentage was inconsequential. On the other hand, the highest percentage for /dʒ/ takes place when it occurs initially and the least percentage when it comes about medially. In e-learning, has negative impact on learning.



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How to Cite

Rafida Mansoor Al hilou, A. P. D. (2023). Mispronunciation Problems of Affricate Sounds by Iraqi EFL Learners: An Empirical Study in Face-to-Face learning and E-learning . Lark, 15(2), 820-796. https://doi.org/10.31185/lark.Vol2.Iss49.2865